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2018 Vol. 6, No. 4
Published: 2018-12-30

Review
Article
Forum
 
       Forum
173 Do children with autism spectrum disorder have altruistic behaviors?
JING Jin
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.001
The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still unknown. A large number of studies have shown that it is difficult to determine whether there is a specific or direct association between ASD and any risk factors on ASD is heterogeneous. The research of brain science provides a valuable basis for revealing ASD cognition and behavioral characterization, and provides some references for ASD's behavioral intervention. This article gives an overview of the research progress of altruism, which is a new hotspot in the cognitive neuropsychological research of ASD.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 173- [Abstract] ( 2102 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1494 KB)  ( 1513 )
       Article
178 Expression of lncRNA MEG3 in white preadipocyte differentiation process and visceral fatty tissues of the obese
ZHANG Na, CUI Xinhua, CHEN Geng, SHAO Yanjuan,WEN Juan, CUI Xianwei, JI Chenbo, YOU Lianghui
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.002
Objective To explore the expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MEG3 in white preadipocyte differentiation process and visceral fatty tissues of the obese. In addition to evaluate the relationship between the expression of MEG3 and body mass index (BMI) and to provide clues of MEG3 role in adipocyte differentiation and obesity. Methods The expressions of MEG3 at different time points (D0, D1, D3, D5, D9, and D12) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qPCR). Furthermore, the MEG3 expressions in visceral fatty tissues of the control and obese were also examined by qPCR. Pearson correlation was used to discover the variation trend between MEG3 and BMI, triacylglycerol and cholesterol. Results ① MEG3 expression was increased during the differentiation (D1, D3, D5, D9, and D12) of white preadipocytes, especially at early time points. ② In the obese, the expression of MEG3 in visceral organs was obviously augmented (P<0.05). ③ The expression was strongly correlated with BMI[r=0.5038(/PPIA), r=0.5497(/18s)]. Conclusion This study characterized the change of MEG3 expression during white preadipocyte differentiation and indicated that MEG3 may be a regulator during differentiation of adipocytes. Similarly, the increased level of MEG3 in the obese remains a target objective for prevention and treatment of obesity.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 178- [Abstract] ( 2070 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2436 KB)  ( 1378 )
184 Decision tree model for predicting diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among preschoolers based on parental questionnaire
ZHANG Jinsong, PAN Jingxue,SHUAI Lan, ZHANG Huifeng, XIA Weiping, WANG Zhouye, LI Wei
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.003
Objective To discuss the correlation between executive function and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in preschool children, and to establish the ADHD diagnostic prediction model based on clinical data. Methods Parents of kindergarten students (n=105), non-reference clinical patients who were diagnosed as having ADHD (n=263) by the psychiatrists based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) and diagnostic infant preschool assessment (DIPA) completed the (Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Ⅳ Rating Scale,parent version, SNAP-Ⅳ), strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), and behavior rating scale of executive function-preschool version parent form(BRIEF-P) to evaluate children's symptoms and executive function through different perspectives. Significant factors which contribute to relationship were chosen by correlation analysis, and then whole prediction was made by Logistic regression. To improve the prediction of ADHD, subsections prediction was made using decision tree analysis and Logistic regression conditionally to classify ADHD types. Results ① Factors which were relative to ADHD mainly included inhibition, working memory, inhibitory selfcontrol, emergent metacognition and total BRIEF-P score, hyperactivity, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. ② Logistic regression predicted 88.8% of ADHD, and decision tree analysis showed that the prediction nodes influencing diagnosis of  ADHD included inattention, inhibition and inhibitory self-control factors. ③ Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were conducted on ADHD subtype diagnostic prediction and related significant factors. Conclusion The ADHD symptoms and executive function can predict the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool children. Moreover, it predicts the diagnosis of ADHD subtype and comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder(ODD), providing the references for clinic application.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 184- [Abstract] ( 2292 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (912 KB)  ( 1717 )
191 Executive function of  primary caregivers in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
LI Wei, ZHANG Jinsong, SHUAI Lan, PAN Jingxue, ZHANG Huifeng, XIA Weiping, WANG Zhouye
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.004
Objective To explore the symptoms and executive function of preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their primary caregivers, and to analyze the correlation between children's and parents' executive function. Methods Research subjects were 225 ADHD preschool children diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,fifth edition(DSM-5) and 115 normal preschool children. The executive functions of preschool children with ADHD and their primary caregivers were evaluated using behavior rating scale of executive function-preschool version (BRIEF-P),   adult ADHD self-rating scale(ASRS), and behavior rating inventory of executive function-adult version (BRIEF-A). The results of the two groups were compared.    Results ① The differences of symptom scores between the parents of children in ADHD group and normal group had no statistical significance (P>0.05), but the numbers of items of inattention and sum had statistical significance(P<0.05). ② The scores of the children's ecological executive function in the ADHD group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the scores of emotional control, organization orderliness, behavior management index factor and total scores in parents of children with  ADHD were statistically significant compared with those of parents in the control group (P<0.05). ③ BRIEF-P scores of children in the ADHD group were low to moderate positive correlated with their parents' BRIEF-A scores (r=0.189-0.453, P<0.01). The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the total scores of executive function of primary caregivers  of ADHD children affected the total scores of executive function of children by 20.1%. Conclusion Executive function of some parents of preschool children with ADHD is impaired. Executive function of children with ADHD and their parents' executive function have certain relevance. Parents may affect their children through genetic or environmental factors.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 191- [Abstract] ( 2325 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1239 KB)  ( 1727 )
197 Family related factors in diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders in Chongqing
YANG Ting, ZHU Jiang, GUO Min, LAI Xi, LI Yuanyuan, TANG Ting, LI Qiu, CHEN Jie, LI Tingyu
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.005
Objective To investigate the status of family, disease burden and patient demand for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children, and to make a proposal for improving health care system and society supporting for the families with autism children. Methods Totally 205 children with ASD in specific educational institutions of Chongqing were enrolled in this study from March 2015 to May 2017.The information about the family information, perinatal history, disease burden, and patient demand was collected by using questionnaires. Results Totally 205 children with ASD were enrolled in this study with the male to female ratio of 7.2∶1(180/25). The main initial diagnostic age of the children with ASD was 24~35 months. The degree of mother received education, marital status, number of children (single-child or not), family structure and family relationships affected the initial diagnostic age. About 58.0% of the children with ASD received formal treatment within 6 months from the initial diagnosis to autism diagnosis. Further, family relationship is a factor influencing the length of intervention. Conclusion For early diagnosis and treatment, decision makers need to increase government support, increase publicity of disease screening and prevention knowledge, strengthen screening for high-risk children, and establish a stable and effective rehabilitation network for autistic children. Social and community forces are also needed to support families with ASD children, both materially and spiritually.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 197- [Abstract] ( 2188 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (759 KB)  ( 1646 )
202 Relationship between social support, depression and problem behavior of adolescents: mediating role of regulation
ZHANG Linni, CAI Dan, ZHAO Jialin,XU Zhening
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.006
Objective To explore whether youth behavior is influenced by social support, depression and peer gender. Methods A survey of 1 547 middle school students in Shanghai on social support, depression, and problem behaviors was carried out. The majority of peers for the same gender or the opposite gender were evaluated. Results ① Social support, depression, and problem behaviors were significantly different among peers. Most peers with opposite sex felt less social support, higher depression, and problem behaviors. ② Teenagers' social support, depression, and problem behaviors were significantly related. ③ The sense of depression played a part-mediated role in the relationship between social support and problem behaviors of adolescents, in which the first half was adjusted by peer gender. Conclusion Adolescent behaviors are influenced by social support, depression, and peer gender.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 202- [Abstract] ( 2145 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (723 KB)  ( 1732 )
       Review
207 Sedentary behaviors and their health risks for children and adolescents
CHEN Chang, ZHANG Yunting, MA Shengxia,LIU Shijian, ZHANG Chongfan, CAO Zhenbo, JIANG Fan
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.007
The definitions of sedentary behaviors, sedentary health risks, and related recommendations from the international physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines, and high-quality researches among children and adolescents are summarized. In combination with Chinese social lifestyle, Chinese Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Guidelines for Children and Adolescents  provides the definition of sedentary behavior and related recommendations, which aimed to guide students, parents, doctors and teachers, and help students form healthy lifestyle.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 207- [Abstract] ( 2347 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (723 KB)  ( 1929 )
213 Developmental mechanism of the visual word form area: from view of neuronal recycling hypothesis
GAO Dan, JIA Shengzhou, ZHOU Jiaxian
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.008
The neuronal recycling hypothesis has proposed that the neural circuits are developed close to the function of new culture invention after it invades into the original cortical area, however, it would not lead to the disappearance of the original function but weak it. The acquisition of culture is limited by the original functions. The visual word form area (VWFA) recycles the form recognition area in the visual cortex for processing visual words, which is located in the fusiform gyrus at the junction of the occipital temporal lobe. Based on the study of Chinese characters and other writing system in recent years, we explore the influence of Chinese reading education on the visual word form area from the perspective of neuronal recycling hypothesis, and gain some implications on Chinese reading education from it.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 213- [Abstract] ( 1891 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (745 KB)  ( 1215 )
221 Analysis of cognitive psychology and brain mechanism in bilingual learning
YANG Shaogang, HOU Jiancheng
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2018.04.009
Language learning has close association with brain and its cognitive psychology in human beings, but there are still many arguments on what differences there exist between bilinguals and monolinguals in their cognition and brain mechanism. This article makes a comprehensive comment on the research of the relationship between language and cognitive processing of the brain among the domestic and foreign scholars, most of which believe that using two languages in daily life is not only beneficial to one's cognitive development, but also contributes to international communication in contemporary time, there are, however, different conclusions among them. The development of language analytic techniques have further facilitated the measure of language processing in bilingualism and there are many positive results especially in the research of the lateralization of bilingual learning, but there are still some debates about it. The future research should deepen and identify the applying values of bilingualism and pay attention to the possible impact of extraneous variables on the language processing.
2018 Vol. 6 (4): 221- [Abstract] ( 1711 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (732 KB)  ( 1297 )
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