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2022 Vol. 10, No. 6
Published: 2022-11-30

Review
Article
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433 Diagnosis, treatment, and management of children with comorbidity of tic disorder and attention deficit and hyperactive disorder
YU Jing, CHEN Wenxiong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.001
Tic disorder (TD) and attention deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders. About half of children with TD suffer from ADHD. The pathogenesis is not yet clear, and it may be closely related to the dysfunction of the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex-striatum-thalamic-cortex circuits. Tic symptoms will appear later than ADHD symptoms, especially in patients with severe TD. After TD coexisting with ADHD, there will be more serious attention deficit, and cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems, which aggravate their social function damage. The diagnosis of TD with comorbid ADHD should follow relevant clinical diagnostic criteria. Before treatment, a comprehensive assessment is required to identify the main diseases that affect their social functions. Priority is given to the treatment of diseases with more severe impairment of the children’s social function. The treatment plan is based on behavioral intervention combined with drug therapy. Medication should take into account the symptoms of tics and attention deficit hyperactivity to avoid increasing the risk of tics. Clinically, due to insufficient understanding of TD with comorbid ADHD, diagnosis and treatment are easily delayed. TD with comorbid ADHD increases the difficulty of treatment and affects the prognosis. Early identification, early intervention, and long-range management play important roles in improving the social function of children with TD with comorbid ADHD.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 433- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1046 KB)  ( 29 )
       Article
439 Relationship between active social network use and life satisfaction of senior high school students: chain mediating role of social comparison and positive affect
XIAO Xiaofang, ZHENG Xifu
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.002
Objective To investigate the relations among active social network use, social comparison, positive affect, and life satisfaction in adolescents. Methods A total of 760 senior high school students were recruited in the study to complete active social network use scale, social comparison scale, positive affect scale, and life satisfaction scale. Results The relations between each pair of active social network use, social comparison, positive affect and life satisfaction, were significantly positive. Active social network use had significantly direct effect on life satisfaction. Active social network use affected adolescents' life satisfaction through three indirect paths: the mediating role of social comparison, the mediating role of positive affect, and the chain mediating role of both social comparison and positive affect. Conclusion The results further revealed the mechanism of positive impact of active social network use on life satisfaction. In order to improve students life satisfaction, educators can give more guidance to adolescents to use the social network actively.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 439- [Abstract] ( 39 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (896 KB)  ( 27 )
445 Effect of perceived stress on Internet addiction among middle schoolstudents: chain mediating roles of shame and psychological resilience
FANG Haijian, CUI Yanan, YU Fengqiong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.003
Objective To explore the relationship between perceived stress and Internet addiction among middle school students and its influencing mechanism. Methods A total of 7 049 students from five middle schools in Hefei were investigated with perceived stress scale, Internet addiction scale, psychological resilience scale, and shame scale. Results Middle school students’ perceived stress was positively correlated with Internet addiction and shame, while negatively correlated with psychological elasticity. Perceived stress could directly predict individual Internet addiction, and could directly affect individual Internet addiction through three paths: the intermediary of shame, the intermediary of psychological elasticity, and the chain intermediary of shame and psychological elasticity. Conclusion Perceived stress can affect individuals’ Internet addiction through resilience and shame, and can reduce individuals’Internet addiction by reducing shame and enhancing psychological resilience.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 445- [Abstract] ( 39 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (812 KB)  ( 31 )
450 Study on relationship between positive mental characters and mental health of children with learning disability burnout
MING Xiuping, ZENG Danying, ZHOU Xinyi, ZHANG Shudong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.004
Objective To explore the development status of positive mental characters and mental health ofchildren with learning disability (LD) and the relationship between them. Methods The questionnaire method was used to investigate the mental health of LD children from grade 3 to grade 6 , and the relationship between positive mental quality and mental health was analyzed. The age-and gender-matched non-learning disabled children (normal children)were used as controls. Results A total of 67 LD children and 64 normal children were enrolled. The positive mental character ofLD children was in the middle level, which was significantly lower than that of the controls ( P<0.05) . Compared with the controls, there were significant differences in the total score of positive mental character, and scores of courage, humanity,justice, and transcendence in the LD children ( P<0.05, P<0.01) . The mental health level of LD children was in the normal range, which was significantly higher than that of the controls ( P<0.01) . Compared with the controls, there were significant differences in learning anxiety, anxiety towards others, self-blame tendency, physical symptoms, and impulsivity tendencyin the LD children ( P<0.05, P<0.01) . There was a significant negative correlation between positive mental character and mental health in LD children ( P<0.05) . Conclusion The positive mental character of LD children can effectively predict their mental health status. It is suggested to carry out positive mental health education to improve their mental health status.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 450- [Abstract] ( 40 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (859 KB)  ( 26 )
457 Application of CBL combined with intensive situational simulationteaching method to “4 + 4” eight-year pediatric medical education
LIU Tingting, LI Huajun, CHEN Yi, GE Xin, ZHU Yaju, HE Kejun, ZHAO Dongying, SUN Jing, YAN Weihui, LIU Haipei, QIAN Jihong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.005
Objective To study the effect of case-based learning (CBL)combined with situational simulation teaching method to “4+ 4”eight-year pediatric medical education. Methods A total of 147 students of “4+ 4”eight-year medical education from 2012 to 2019 , in the Department of Pediatrics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, were selected. The students of 2012 to 2015 were selected as control group ( n=59)and students of 2016 to 2019 were selected as observation group ( n=88). The students in the control group were taught by CBL combined with traditional situational simulation teaching method, and the students in the observation group were taught by CBL combined with intensive situational simulation teaching method, respectively. The two groups were assessed by theoretical examination, CBL case analysis scoring, and situational simulation assessment. The teaching satisfaction survey was conducted after the course. Results Theoretical score in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( P<0.05) . Theoretical knowledge, logical ability of case analysis, clinical diagnosis, standardization of differential diagnosis, language expression ability, teamwork, and learning interest in the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group ( P<0.05) . The scores of teamwork, ability of doctor-patient communication, combination of clinic and theory, and first aid ability in the situational simulation assessment of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group ( P<0.05) . Questionnaire showed that the overall course satisfaction of the observation group was obviously
higher than that of the control group ( P<0.05) . Conclusion Compared to traditional method, CBL combined with intensive situational simulation teaching method improves pediatric basic and clinical ability, stimulates learning interest, and enhances doctor-patient communication and teamwork ability, which is worthy of application.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 457- [Abstract] ( 38 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (915 KB)  ( 25 )
462 Effects of positive and healthy behaviors on anxiety and stress among college students in Shanghai during COVID-19 pandemic
GONG Jingtian, YAO Qian
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.006
Objective To investigate the effects of positive health behaviors on reducing anxiety and stress among college students in Shanghai during COVID-19 epidemic. Methods In April 2022, an online survey was conducted on 519 Shanghai college students’health behaviors, such as diet habit, physical activity(including sedentary behavior), and use of electronic screens. Anxiety and stress levels were evaluated with standard scales, and the effects of health behaviors on anxiety and stress mitigation were explored by stepwise multiple linear regression. Results The higher the frequency at which the college students had three meals regularly per week, the lower their anxiety ( β=-4.08, 95%CI: -5.42— -2.75)and pressure ( β=-2.34, 95%CI: -3.40— -1.29)levels were. The shorter the students used electronic screens ( β=-0.38, 95%CI: -0.69— -0.07), and the higher the frequency at which they consumed fish, meat, egg and milk per week ( β=-1.41, 95%CI: -0.15— -2.67), the less anxious they were. The shorter the electronic screen time during 1 h before falling asleep
(β=-0.09, 95%CI: -0.14— -0.04), the shorter the daily sedentary time they spent ( β=-0.24, 95%CI: -0.41— -0.06) , and the higher the frequency at which they consumed fruits and vegetables ( β=-1.23, 95%CI: -2.13— -0.34), the lower their stress was. Reaching the World Health Organization’s recommended standard of physical activity was also associated with lower stress level ( β=-1.73, 95%CI: -3.31— -0.14) . Conclusion Positive health behaviors of college students can help lower anxiety and stress levels during COVID-19 pandemic.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 462- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (844 KB)  ( 40 )
468 Effects of self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation on social avoidance and distress of college students
WU Wanshan
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.007
Objective To investigate the effects of self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation on social avoidance and distress of college students, and determine the mediating effects of fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between self-esteem and social avoidance and distress. Methods A total of 209 valid questionnaires were collected from college students online by using the self-esteem scale (SES), fear of negative evaluation scale (FNE)and social avoidance anddistress scale (SAD) . Results The subjects’ self-esteem, fear of negative evaluation, and social avoidance and distress were all at high levels. There were significant correlations between self-esteem, fear of negative evaluation, and social avoidance and distress. Self-esteem significantly negatively predicted social avoidance and distress, while fear of negative evaluation significantly positively predicted social avoidance and distress. Self-esteem significantly negatively predicted fear of negative evaluation. Fear of negative evaluation partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and social avoidance and distress. Conclusion College students’ self-esteem can not only directly affect social avoidance and distress, but also indirectly affect social avoidance and distress through fear of negative evaluation.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 468- [Abstract] ( 38 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (867 KB)  ( 28 )
473 Cyberbullying and adolescent depression: roles of loneliness andschool connection
QIN Xiaoqiong, LI Xiu
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.008
Objective To explore the effect of cyberbullying on adolescent depression. Methods A total of 430 adolescents, aged 12—16 years, were measured by Internet bullying subscale, loneliness scale, school life satisfaction scale, and Beck self rating depression scale. Results A total of 402 valid questionnaires were recovered, with an effective rate of 93 %. After controlling demographic variables, cyberbullying had a significant positive predictive effect on adolescentdepression ( β=0.58, t=7.59, P<0.001) . Loneliness played a partial mediating role between cyberbullying and adolescent depression (95% CI: 0.03-0.14). School connection had a significant negative regulatory effect on the mediating effect of loneliness. School connection regulated the second half path of the mediating process (INDEX=-0.003 1, 95% CI: -0.007 4- -0.0001) . Conclusion Cyberbullying can affect adolescent depression through loneliness, and the mediating effect is regulated by school connection.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 473- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (857 KB)  ( 24 )
479 Watching-eyes effect on intergroup empathy bias
LI Xiaodie, LI Dan
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.009
Objective To examine the influence of watching-eyes effect on intergroup empathy bias. Methods Sixty-four participants were recruited and asked to read positive and negative stories with or without eyes images, which described the experiences of members of both in-and out-group members. They were also asked to rate how good and bad the stories were. Results Under both positive empathy and negative empathy, the main effect of group belonging was significant, and the empathy of in-group members was significantly higher than that of out-group members. Also there were significant interactions between group belonging and watching-eyes. Specifically, empathy of in-group was significantly higher than that of out-group when the eyes images were present. There was no significant difference in the level of empathy of in-and out-group when the eyes images were present. Conclusion Watching-eyes effect can promote the individual’s empathy of the out-group members and reduce the intergroup empathy bias.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 479- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (937 KB)  ( 19 )
484 Effect of integrated medical and nursing health management on cooperation degree and fear of patients undergoing painless gastroscopy combined with colonoscopy
DONG Yongrong, TONG Xuerong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.010
Objective To explore the effect of integrated health management on the cooperation degree and fear of patients undergoing painless gastroscopy combined with colonoscopy. Methods A total of 120 patients undergoing painless gastroscopy combined with colonoscopy were randomly divided into two groups, with 60 cases in each group. The control group was given routine psychological nursing intervention, and the observation group was given integrated healthmanagement based on routine psychological nursing. Frankl compliance scale (FCS)and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate and compare the degree of cooperation and fear before and after intervention between the two groups. The diagnosis time of gastroscopy and colonoscopy, the recovery time of gastrointestinal function, complications, and changes of physiological indexes were compared between the two groups. Results Compared with those before intervention, the cooperation scores of the two groups significantly increased after intervention, while the fear scores significantly decreased
(P=0.001) . After intervention, the fitness score of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the controlgroup, while the fear score was significantly lower than that of the control group ( P=0.001) . Compared with the control group, the time of gastroscopy and colonoscopy diagnosis and gastrointestinal function recovery in the observation groupwas shortened ( P=0.001); the incidence of complications was lower ( P<0.05) ; the recovery of physiological indicatorswas better ( P=0.001) . Conclusion The application of integrated medical and nursing health management to patients undergoing painless gastroscopy combined with colonoscopy has a significant effect, which can effectively improve patients’ cooperation and diagnostic efficiency of patients, relieve the fear, reduce complications and promote recovery.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 484- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (851 KB)  ( 23 )
488 Investigation into interest of undergraduate stomatological freshmen in professional field and study on educational countermeasures
SONG Dongzhe, ZENG Yanglin, ZHENG Qinghua
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.011
Objective To explore the interest of undergraduate stomatological freshmen in the professional field, guide students’ personalized development, and formulate corresponding educational strategies in order to improve the level of stomatological education. Methods In March 2021 , an open-ended questionnaire was used to investigate the interest of the 2020 undergraduate freshmen of West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University. The data were described interms of percentage (%)and frequency. Results A total of 226 questionnaires were sent out and 199 were received. The results showed that students mainly focused on clinical operation, theoretical knowledge, career development, and scientific research. Among them, clinical operation was the most concerned (116/58.3%), followed by theoretical knowledge(72/36.2%), and the lowest was scientific research (16/8.0%) . Conclusion According to the interest of undergraduate freshmen, corresponding educational strategies could be formulated from the aspects of curriculum design, teacher guidance, and student self-mobilization. The commonality and individuality of education should be taken into account to help cultivation of high-quality talents in stomatology.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 488- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (779 KB)  ( 23 )
       Review
493 Research progress of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of non-suicidal self-injury behavior in adolescents with depression
KANG Pengli, SUN Ning, LIU Penghong, WANG Binhong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.012
With the increase of learning and living pressure, the prevalence of adolescent depression is increasing. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)behavior is one of the typical symptoms of adolescent depression, which poses a serious threat to the physical and mental health of adolescents. Therefore, it is particularly important to take active and effectivetreatment measures. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) , as a safe and noninvasive neuromodulation technique, has been increasingly confirmed in the treatment of depression. This article reviews the etiology and mechanisms of NSSI behavior in adolescent depression patients and the current status of rTMS treatment.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 493- [Abstract] ( 36 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (750 KB)  ( 34 )
498 Status quo and prospect of parental mind-mindedness researches
WU Ruolin
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4301.2022.06.013
Mind-mindedness is defined as a mother’s tendency to treat her infant as an individual with a mind. The level and quality of mind-mindedness are affected by many factors, such as caregiver’s identity, childbearing age, physical condition, education level and reflective function, consanguinity with children, as well as rearing pressure. At the same time, effective mind-mindedness determines the direction of intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns, helps the development of children’s theory of mind and children’s emotional regulation, and helps to reduce and avoid the occurrence of children’s behavior problems. Future research can focus on improving the measurement method of mind-mindedness, focusing on the differences in cross-cultural research of mind-mindedness, and deeply exploring the potential psychological structure.
2022 Vol. 10 (6): 498- [Abstract] ( 33 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (843 KB)  ( 26 )
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