Abstract：Cultural factors play an important role in children’s cognitive development. There are significant differences in cognitive abilities，especially senior social cognitive abilities among children with different cultural back-grounds. Sometimes they may exhibit opposite characteristics. These differences are reflected in many aspects，such as velocity of cognitive development，order of cognitive development，acquisition of ability and ways of thinking. Cultural neuroscience，which investigates the bilateral relationship between culture and brain，has confirmed that culture“shapes”the brain. Cross-cultural perspective not only helps to know better about the characteristics of children’s social cognitive development，but also contributes to identify the cultural development differences from dysplasia and develop-mental defects.