1. Department of Child and Maternal Health，School of Public Health，Xinjiang Medical University，Urumqi 830011，Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region，China; 2. Department of Child Health Care，Urumqi Children's Hospital，Urumqi 830000，Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region，China;3. Urumqi Psychiatric Welfare Institute，Urumqi 830016，Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region，China;4. Urumqi No. 60 Middle School，Urumqi 830001，Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region，China;5. Affiliated Primary School of Urumqi No. 65 Middle School，Urumqi 830049，Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China
目的 了解乌鲁木齐市7~12岁孤儿的心理健康状况，为开展针对孤儿的心理辅导提供科学依据。方法 采用自编问卷、小学生心理健康评定量表（mental health rate scale for pupils，MHRSP），按横断面调查方法对7~12岁的孤儿（66例）和年龄匹配的非孤儿（145例）进行问卷调查。结果 孤儿组MHRSP总分的偏离检出率（7.58%）显著高于非孤儿组（0.69%），各维度得分除了学习障碍和不良习惯的偏离检出率在2组间差异无统计学意义外，其余维度偏离检出率在2组间均有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。孤儿在学习障碍、情绪障碍、性格缺陷、社会适应障碍、品德缺陷、不良习惯、行为障碍、特种障碍得分及总分均高于非孤儿组，差异均有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。低年级（1~3年级）孤儿学生在情绪障碍、性格缺陷、社会适应障碍、品德缺陷、行为障碍、特种障碍各维度得分及总分显著高于低年级非孤儿学生，差异均有统计学意义（P＜0.05）；低年级孤儿学生在学习障碍、不良习惯得分与低年级非孤儿学生间差异无统计学意义（P＞0.05）。高年级（4~6年级）孤儿学生在学习障碍、社会适应障碍、品德缺陷、行为障碍各维度得分及总分显著高于高年级非孤儿学生，差异有统计学意义（P＜0.05）,而在情绪障碍、性格缺陷、不良习惯及特种障碍得分与高年级非孤儿学生间差异无统计学意义（P＞0.05）。孤儿与非孤儿在性格特征、同伴关系上的差异有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。结论 乌鲁木齐市7~12岁的孤儿心理健康水平低于非孤儿，心理健康偏离检出率较高，并在不同年级、性格特征和同伴关系上表现出差异。研究提示不同年级的孤儿需要实施分别辅导，对于低年级的孤儿，心理辅导注意要培养良好的心理品质、提高自我认知水平，促进他们勇于面对困难及挑战的心理素质；对于高年级的孤儿，心理辅导应关注其个性差异，构筑平等交流、沟通的平台，提供认识自己、善待自己、超越自我的机会。
Objective To investigate the mental health status of orphans aged 7-12 in Urumqi so as to provide a scientific basis for carrying out psychological counseling in orphans. Methods A cross-sectional survey using self-constructed questionnaire and mental health rate scale for pupils (MHRSP) was performed in orphans aged 7-12 (66 cases) and non-orphans matched by age(145 cases). Results The deviation rate of MHRSP total score in the orphan group (7.58%) was significantly higher than that in the non-orphan group (0.69%). The deviation rates of dimensions except for the learning disability and bad habits were statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05). The scores of orphans on learning disabilities，mood disorders，character defects，social adjustment disorders，moral defects，bad habits，behavioral disorders and special disorders were higher than those of non-orphans，so was the MHRSP total score (P<0.05). The scores of orphans in grades 1 to 3 （low grades） on dimensions including mood disorders，character defects，social adjustment disorders，moral defects，behavioral disorders and special disorders as well as MHRSP total score were significantly higher than those of non-orphans in grades 1-3 (P<0.05). However，there was no significant difference in the scores on learning disabilities，and bad habits between low-grade orphans and non-orphans (P>0.05). The scores of orphans in grades 4 to 6 ( senior grades) on learning disability，social adjustment disorders ,moral defects，behavioral disorders as well as MHRSP total score were significantly higher than those of non-orphans in senior grades (P<0.05)，while the scores on mood disorders，character defects，bad habits and special disorders were of no difference (P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in personality type and peer relationship between orphans and non-orphans (P<0.05). Conclusion The mental health level of 7-12 year old orphans in Urumqi is lower than that of non-orphans，with a higher detection rate for mental health deviation. There are differences in personality characteristics and peer relationship between orphans and non-orphans. Psychological differences are seen between low-grade and senior- grade orphans. There is a need to provide orphans with individual psychological counseling. For low-grade orphans，it is important to cultivate orphans' good psychological quality and improve self-awareness. For senior-grade orphans，attention should be paid to their differences in personality，and development of an equal communication platform，which may provide them with opportunities to know themselves，treat themselves well，and surpass themselves.