Abstract：Objective To investigate the status of health knowledge，attitude and behavior of vector biology control among primary and middle school students in Huating Town of Jiading District in Shanghai. Methods Three hundred and fifty-two primary school students in grades 3 and 4（primary school group）and 227 middle school students in grades 6，7 and 8（middle school group）were selected from two primary and middle schools in Huating Town of Jiading District in Shanghai by stratified cluster sampling. These students were surveyed by vector biology control-related health knowledge questionnaire for primary and middle school students，and the status of health knowledge，attitude and behavior of vector biology control was analyzed. Results A total of 547 effective questionnaires were recovered，among which 206 were from middle school group and 341 from primary school group. The overall awareness rates of vector biology-related knowledge in primary school group and middle school group were 55.00% and 67.44%，respectively. The awareness rates of transmission of diseases，living habits and control of vector biology in middle school group were significantly higher than those in primary school group（P < 0.01）. With regard to attitudes，the percentages of students who considered it necessary to know vector related health knowledge and be actively involved in clearing breeding place of mosquitos，flies，mice and cockroaches in middle school group were significantly higher than those in primary school group（P < 0.01）. In the control of mosquito bites，the awareness rates of hanging mosquito nets and clearing water pits in primary school group were significantly higher than those in middle school group（P < 0.01）. Conclusion The mastery of health knowledge of vector biology of primary and middle school students is not optimistic，and school health education should be strengthened on disease prevention.