Objective To explore the prevalence and changing trends of the mortality among children under one year old in Wuxi, and to provide proper reference for the decisions made by the child health, disease control, and health administration. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using the surveillance data of infant deaths in Wuxi from 2010 to 2017. Results The infant mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate in Wuxi showed a decreasing trend from 2010 to 2017. Neonatal mortality rate within 7 days, infant and neonatal mortality rate of floating population decreased greatly, which declined 49.38%, 38.77% and 45.51%, respectively, compared with those in 2010. The three main causes leading to infant death were premature or low birth weight, birth asphyxia, and congenital heart disease. Conclusion Although the infant and neonatal mortality rate in Wuxi showed a declining trend from 2010 to 2017, it is still necessary to combine prevention and clinical health care, strengthen the construction of the third-level maternal and child health care network, and continue to explore more measures to continuously reduce infant mortality.